As the Women in STEM project concludes, we investigate the world of mathematics. The Women in STEM Mathematics section includes women in statistics, operations research, programming, and actuarial science. The women featured in this portion of Women in STEM have impressive accolades. The careers led by Bacher, Phipps, Liebman, Easley, Coke, and Spiers offer a glimpse of the many applications of mathematics. The work of these women showcases the variety present in mathematics and are examples of the potential for Women in Mathematics, and Women in STEM. To learn more about our six Women in Mathematics, read their individual summaries below, follow us at @WSKGScience on Instagram or on Twitter @NancyCoddington @JulD22 for more inspiring #WomenInSTEM.

**Rhonda Bacher
**Dr. Rhonda Bacher is an Assistant Professor of Biostatistics at the University of Florida. Earning her Ph.D. in 2018, Dr. Bacher has already contributed incredible published research to the biostatistics world. Dr. Bacher’s research interests include the creation and use of statistical methods alongside software to analyze genetics and genomics. Her work aims to apply statistics to biological processes and findings. In addition to her position at the University of Florida, Dr. Bacher has many upcoming talks concerning animal biology and biomath.

**Polly Phipps
**Dr. Polly Phipps is a Senior Survey Methodologist at the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Prior to this role, she worked as a Senior Research Statistician at the same organization. Dr. Phipps is a social statistician, meaning she works with statistical systems to model and study human behavioral patterns. Much of her past work involves statistical data analysis. Dr. Phipps has several publications that cover a wide variety of topics. These include analyses of employment statistics, time use surveys, and sex compositions of varying fields. Phipps was recognized for her work with her election as a Fellow of the American Statistical Association in 2013.

**Judith Liebman
**Dr. Judith Liebman earned a Ph.D. in Operations Research and Industrial Engineering in 1971. She used her education to lead a career as an educator, working at Johns Hopkins University and later at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. When asked what work she was most proud of, Dr. Liebman stated, “Educating students about operations research and its potential to solve problems.” Her enthusiasm toward inspiring students in her field was clear. Dr. Liebman cites her mother’s initial support of her interest in science as the beginning of her path toward a career in STEM. She went on to describe how her husband’s encounter with operations research led to her taking an introductory course. She states, “I was working as a computer programmer for General Electric’s research lab which let me take the course and paid the tuition. I was hooked!” Dr. Liebman has since retired and now spends time pursuing cooking, gardening, and reading.

**Annie Easley
**Annie Easley was a mathematician and computer scientist who worked for NASA for 34 years. Starting her career with the organization in 1955, Easley worked alongside researchers providing analysis and calculations. She was one of just four African American employees hired for computational work. This, however, did not deter her from her work. Easley stated, “My thing is, If I can’t work with you, I will work around you.” This perseverance allowed her to continue to succeed at NASA when her department transitioned to a more technological approach to math. Easley went from doing work by hand to using computer programming to assist in the research effort. She would go on to work as an Equal Employment Opportunity Counselor to address discrimination in the workplace.

**Daisy Coke
**Daisy Coke is the founder of the Caribbean Actuarial Association. She is known for being the first Jamaican actuary to practice in her native country, and for being the first Jamaican Government Actuary. Coke worked in the private sector and for the Jamaican government as a member of the Judicial Service and Public Service Commissions. Her unique educational background offered Coke a well-rounded and experienced approach to actuarial science in her home country. While working towards her career, Coke studied at the University of the West Indies, the University of Toronto, and Oxford University. Each of these experiences offered Daisy Coke applications of actuarial science, and she used what she saw at Oxford to bring her practice to the Jamaican government.

**Dorothy Spiers
**Dorothy Spiers was an actuary who worked in the private sector. She is known best for being the first woman to qualify as an actuary in the United Kingdom. This achievement was especially groundbreaking as it occurred just one year after the Institute of Actuaries made the decision to allow women to be admitted. Spiers worked for years as a part-time actuary while raising her two sons. She was also a member and the National Treasurer of the League of Jewish Women, a volunteer organization providing assistance to Jewish people in the United Kingdom.

Produced by Julia Diana, Science Intern

Nancy Coddington, Director of Science Content

Each day, women are making strides across fields in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Historically, these Women in STEM have gone unrecognized, preventing young women from having access to role models who look like them. To change that, we have to start creating that representation.

Young women should be able to see someone who looks like them succeeding in the professional world. This creates STEM identity, which is the power of representation and sense of belonging creating purpose and sense of worth in associated fields. This can benefit future generations as more people feel comfortable to explore their interests. The Women in STEM project aims to demonstrate that there is no one “face of STEM”, it is ambiguous.

Each of the branches of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math are expansive. Within this project we will traverse through STEM exploring the works of many women in a variety of fields. The Science section of Women in STEM highlights careers in microbiology, ecology, organic chemistry, astrophysics, and social sciences. Technology showcases women working in architecture, information technology, and aerospace. Engineering shines a light on the work of civil, software, mechanical, environmental, and electrical engineers. Women in Math will look into the achievements of statisticians, programmers, operational researchers, and actuaries.

The power of representation in education cannot be understated. It is so significant for young women to understand that people like them have done great things. Representation allows for a girl to feel like she belongs, whether it be in the classroom learning math or in the lab experimenting with microscopes. There are many barriers to success for women including race, religion and societal preference toward their male colleagues. There are men who have done and will do great things for STEM fields, but there are also women whom history has hidden. These standards in society need to be actively combatted, and this is what the Women in STEM project seeks to do. By increasing the visibility of both current and past women achieving greatness in STEM, young women can feel confident in their capabilities and know they belong.

Click on the these links to see highlights of our Women In STEM.

[wptb id=1150480]Watch the WSKG Science Instagram highlighting Women in STEM.

Produced by Julia Diana, Science Intern

Nancy Coddington, Director of Science Content

Additional Information:

National Girls Collaborative Project The vision of the National Girls Collaborative Project (NGCP) is to bring together organizations throughout the United States that are committed to informing and encouraging girls to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM).

New York State STEAM Girls Collaborative brings together organizations throughout New York that are committed to informing and motivating girls to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM).The New York State Network for Youth Success is the lead agency for the NY Collaborative.

FabFems are women from a broad range of professions in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). They are passionate, collaborative, and work to make the world a better place. Many girls have similar interests but aren’t connected to adults who exemplify the STEM career pathway. This is where you come in. Create a FabFems profile to expand girls’ career options, dispel stereotypes and spark their interests – just by being you.

If/Then Collection – Digital library with thousands of photos, videos and other assets that authentically represent women in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). The content features careers as diverse as shark tagging, fashion design, and training Olympic athletes, and nudges public perceptions in a more realistic direction that illuminates the importance of STEM everywhere.

The post Women in STEM first appeared on WSKG.]]>Join WSKG at this free conference for PK-12 teachers. We’ll be featuring resources from our very own Good to Know series and math materials from PBS LearningMedia. Attendees can also learn about the new ‘Text-to-Teacher’ project from *Cyberchase*!

Thursday, March 15, 2018 at Chenango Valley High School in Binghamton, NY. The Conference will run 4:15pm-7:15pm.

Sessions include math workstations, Math & Movement, Lakeshore, and more! The conference is sponsored by Broome-Tioga BOCES and the Broome County Teacher Center. Click here for more information.

The post Southern Tier Math Conference first appeared on WSKG.]]>

In fourth grade, your child will use the four operations to solve word problems involving money. In order to do this, she will first learn to decompose, or break apart, one dollar into smaller units. We call these units: quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies.

Ask your child: How many quarters make up one dollar? How many quarters make up two dollars?

Think about nickels: How many nickels make one dollar? She knows one dollar is one-hundred cents, so she might skip count by five to one-hundred. There are twenty nickels in one-hundred cents!

When using money, it’s very important to consider the units. One dollar can be written like this or like this. Five cents can be this or this.

With practice, your child will understand all the ways we represent money and be comfortable using decimal notation. Find opportunities to talk about money with your child so she can problem solve with confidence!

And that’s good to know.

This video addresses Common Core Grade 4 Standard Measurement & Data: Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit.

(4.MD.2) Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.

The post Making Sense of Money first appeared on WSKG.]]>To decompose means to break apart. Your child has already decomposed whole numbers with number bonds, tape diagrams, and place value charts. In fourth grade, he will decompose fractions.

Three-eighths is a fraction. We can decompose three-eighths into parts using a tape diagram as the visual model. One-eighth, plus one-eighth, plus one-eighth equals three-eighths.Your child will write this as an equation. These are called unit fractions.

He will also decompose three-eighths as two-eighths plus one-eighths. Decomposing fractions into different parts helps your child to understand that one whole can be expressed in more than one way.

Sometimes your child will work with improper fractions. Ten-fourths is an improper fractions because the numerator is greater than the denominator. Your child will decompose an improper fraction by considering the denominator and pulling out one whole. Four-fourths equals one whole. After pulling out four-fourths, six-fourths remain.

But wait! He can pull out another whole! Your child knows one whole equals one, so he can now see ten-fourths equals one plus one plus two-fourths.

Practice decomposing fractions with your child so he will be ready for mixed numbers and performing operations with fractions!

And that’s good to know.

This video addresses Common Core Grade 4 Standard Number & Operations – Fractions: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers.

(4.NF.3) Understand a fraction a/b with a greater than 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b.

(4.NF.3b) Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. Examples: ⅜ = ⅛ + ⅛ + ⅛ = ⅛ + 2/8; 2 ⅛ = 1 + 1 + ⅛ = 8/8 + 8/8 + ⅛ .

In fourth grade, your child will use the metric system to measure length, mass, and capacity. Length refers to the measurement of something from end to end. Long lengths are called distance.

Mass refers to the measure of the amount of matter in an object.

Capacity refers to the maximum amount that something can contain, commonly called volume. This cup has a maximum capacity that is much smaller than the capacity of this swimming pool.

Kilometer, meter, and centimeter are metric measurements of length. Kilogram and gram are used to measure mass. Liter and milliliter measure capacity.

Learning what unit is appropriate for each measurement can be challenging. Ask your child:

What unit is best to measure our trip to grandma’s house? Is it best to measure your mass in kilograms or grams? What unit is used to tell us the capacity of this juice bottle?

Talk about these units at home so your child will be confident when converting units of measure. That is, expressing a measurement in a different unit. He will recognize patterns of converting units on the place value chart. Just as one-thousand grams is equal to one kilogram, one-thousand ones is equal to one thousand.

Your child will practice this by completing conversion charts. He will convert between units using his place value knowledge. Talking about length, mass, and capacity will help your child become familiar and confident with all types of units!

Knowing which unit is larger or smaller is important as he converts from one unit to another unit within a system of measurement. Having a strong understanding of units is very helpful when your child begins to add, subtract, multiply, and divide with units of measure.

And that’s good to know.

This video addresses Common Core Grade 4 Standard Measurement & Data: Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit. Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; L, mL; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table.

Note: Pounds, ounces, and time are explored but not tested in Grade 4.

The post Units of Measure first appeared on WSKG.]]>When your child first learns to multiply two two-digit numbers, she will use the area model. This visual tool illustrates how to decompose numbers and find four different products. As her skills improve, she will move from this pictorial model into a concrete method called partial products.

Using partial products to solve forty-three times fifty-six, looks like this. She will start by multiplying tens times tens. Next, she will multiply tens times ones. Then, ones times tens and last, ones times ones.

These are called partial products. This is the product, or answer. Using partial products removes the pictorial step but places the same emphasis on the actual value of the numbers being multiplied.

By the end of fourth grade, your child will use the standard algorithm to multiply! This algorithm is used to develop an abstract level of understanding. If she jumps right to using the algorithm,

she will not develop the conceptual understanding of multiplying two-digit numbers.

The standard algorithm has fewer lines of work because your child has a greater understanding of what she’s multiplying! Your child knows the actual value of these products because she has a strong understanding of partial products.

And that’s good to know.

This video addresses Common Core Grade 4 Standard Number & Operations in Base Ten: Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.

(4.NBT.5) Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

The post Partial Products first appeared on WSKG.]]>When first learning to multiply two two-digit numbers your child will use the area model.

To start, your child will use her knowledge of place value to decompose into tens and ones. To decompose means to break apart. Let’s decompose these numbers by the value of each digit.

The value of two tens is twenty. The value of three ones is three. Three tens is thirty. And five ones is five. Decomposing numbers allows your child to use the multiplication fluency she developed in third grade to multiply large numbers with mental math.

So, what is twenty-three times thirty-five?

Three tens times two tens equals sixty tens or six-hundred. Thirty tens times three equals nine tens or ninety. Twenty tens times five equals ten tens or one-hundred. And three times five equals fifteen.

Your child will then add these products together. Six-hundred plus ninety equals six-hundred ninety. One-hundred plus fifteen equal one-hundred fifteen. By fourth grade, your child will fluently add three-digit numbers, like this, using the standard algorithm.

Your child can clearly see why twenty-three times thirty-five equals eight-hundred-five. The area model gives your child a visual representation that decomposes the numbers she is multiplying. At this point in fourth grade, your child is developing a pictorial level of understanding,

which will give her a strong foundation for using partial products and, later, using the standard algorithm to multiply.

And that’s good to know.

This video addresses Common Core Grade 4 Standard Number & Operations in Base Ten: Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic. Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

The post Area Model first appeared on WSKG.]]>Your child’s introduction to multiplication is through repeated addition. He will draw an array to visualize, or see, five groups of four stars. He will count the stars and find the total.

As his understanding improves, he will skip count to find the total more efficiently. Your child will use a variety of visual models, to represent multiplication as he works toward developing multiplication fluency.

Fluency in third grade means knowing, from memory, all products of two one-digit numbers. This includes facts from zero times zero all the way up through nine times nine.

Then, your child will use these facts to develop the connection between multiplication and division. Knowing that five times four equals twenty is the first step in understanding that 20 stars, divided into five groups, equals four stars in each group. Or, twenty divided by five equals four.

Talk about the relationship between multiplication and division with your child. I know this… So I also know this! With lots of practice, your child will achieve fluency!

And that’s good to know.

This video addresses Common Core Grade 3 Standard Operations & Algebraic Thinking: Multiply and divide within 100.

(3.OA.7) Fluently multiply and divide within 100, using strategies such as the relationship between multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that 8 x 5 = 40, one knows 40 5 = 8) or properties of operations. By the end of Grade 3, know from memory all products of two one-digit numbers.

The post Multiplication Fluency first appeared on WSKG.]]>Learning to assess the reasonableness of an answer is an important mathematical skill. It’s your child’s way of seeing if she’s on the right track when problem solving. Sometimes we use rounding to estimate a solution.

In third grade, your child will round whole numbers using a vertical number line and round to the nearest ten or to the nearest hundred.

Let’s round seven-hundred sixty-two to the nearest hundred. Your child knows seven-hundred sixty-two is made up of seven hundreds, six tens, and two ones. Seven hundreds is seven-hundred. So seven-hundred-sixty-two will fall somewhere above seven-hundred on the vertical number line.

How many hundreds come after seven hundreds? Five-hundred, six-hundred, seven-hundred, eight-hundred… Eight hundreds!

Next, your child will find the midpoint or halfway mark. What falls halfway between 700 and 800? This can be tricky, so your child may skip count by fifty. Six-hundred, six-hundred fifty, seven-hundred, seven-hundred fifty, eight-hundred… Seven-hundred fifty is the midpoint!

Ask your child: Where will you place seven-hundred sixty-two on this number line? Ummm… Here! Just a little above the midpoint.

Using a vertical number line is a very helpful model. Your child can clearly see that seven-hundred sixty-two is closer to eight-hundred than it is to seven-hundred, so it rounds up to eight-hundred.

Seven-hundred sixty-two rounded to the nearest hundred is eight-hundred. Or, seven-hundred sixty-two is approximately equal to eight-hundred.

Talk with your child about this special case: When a number falls exactly on the midpoint, you round up. Like this – twenty-five is the midpoint, and twenty-five rounded to the nearest ten is thirty because you round up. Twenty-five is approximately thirty.

Using a vertical number line gives your child a visual representation for rounding. With practice, she will always see when to round up and when to round down.

And that’s good to know.

This video addresses Common Core Grade 3 Standard Number & Operations in Base Ten: Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.

(3.NBT.1) Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or 100.

The post Rounding: Nearest 10 or 100 first appeared on WSKG.]]>